A Research Guide for Students by I Lee

Common, Uncommon
and Specialized Abbreviations

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Some Common Abbreviations

abbr. - abbreviation, abbreviated abr. - abridged, abridgment
acad. - academic, academy adapt. - adapter, adaptation, adapted by
adj. - adjective, adjourned, adjustment adm. - administration, admiral
adv. - adverb agr. / agri. / agric. - agricultural, agriculture
Amer. - America, American anon. - anonymous - author unknown
app. - appended, appendix, appointed approx. - approximately
arch. - archaic arr. - arranged (music), arrival, arrived, arrives (travel)
art. - article assn. - association
assoc. - associate, associated attrib. - attributed to
aux. - auxiliary verb b. - base, bass, bat, battery, bay, book, born, brother
bact. - bacteria, bacteriology bap. - baptized
Bcc - blind carbon copy  
bib. - Bible, biblical bibliog. - bibliographer, bibliography, bibliographic
biog. - biographer, biography, biographical biol. - biology
bk. - bank, block, book bkg. - banking
BL - British Library, London bldg. - building
blvd. - boulevard BM - British Museum, London (1973 transferred to BL)
bot. - botanical, botany bp. - bishop
brig. - brigade, brigadier brig. gen. - brigadier general
bro. - brother bull. - bulletin
bur. - bureaus © / copr. - copyright (e.g. © 2017)
c. - circa - about, to cite doubtful dates in history (e.g. c.1911) ca. - circa - about, approximate dates used in narrative
c.a. - chartered accountant, chief accountant, commercial agent, consular agent, controller of accounts cal. - calendar, caliber, small calorie
cap. - capital, capitalize capt. - captain
cath. - cathedral cc / cc. / c.c. - cubic centimeters. Cc - carbon copy
CD - compact disc CD-ROM - compact disc read-only memory
cent. - centigrade, centimeter, central, century cf. -  Latin confer = compare
ch. - chaplain, chapter, check (chess), chief, child, children, Latin chirurgia = surgery, church chap. - chaplain, chapter
chem. - chemical, chemist, chemistry chm. - chairman, checkmate (chess)
chor. - choreographer, choreographed by chron. - chronology
cir. / circ. - circular, Latin circa = about cit. - citation, cited, citizen
civ. - civil, civilian clk. - clerk
cm / cm. - centimeter(s) co. - company, county
c.o. / c/o - care of, carried over c.o.d. - cash on delivery, collect on delivery
col. - collected, collector, college, colonel, colonial, colony, column coll. - college
colloq. - colloquial, colloquialism com. - comedy, command, commandant, commerce, commercial, commission(er), committee, commodore, common, communication, community
comdr. - commander comr. - commissioner
comp. - compiler, compiled by compar. - comparative
con. - concerto, consolidated, consul cond. - conductor, conducted by
conf. - conference Cong. - congress
Cong. Rec. - Congressional Record conj. - conjunction
consol. - consolidated Const. - Constitution
constr. - construction cont. - containing, contents, continent, continental, continue, continued
cont. / contd. - continued corp. - corporal, corporation
cp. - candlepower, compare cpl. - corporal
cr. - credit, creditor, creek crit. - criticism
ct. - carat, cent, court cu. - cubic
cwt. - hundredweight d. - dam (pedigrees), date, daughter, day(s), dead, democrat, density, diameter, died
d. - pence, penny DA, DAI - Dissertation Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International
DAB - Dictionary of American Biography dec. - deceased, declaration, declension, declination, decrease, Italian deprescendo = decreasing in loudness (music)
def. - definition, definite deg. - degree(s)
dep. - department, departure, deposit, depot, deputy dept. - department, deputy
der. / deriv. - derivation, derivative dev. - development, developed by
diag. - diagram dial. - dialect
dict. - dictionary dim. - Italian diminuendo = diminishing in loudness (music)
dipl. - diplomat, diplomatic dir. - director, directed by
disc. - discount, discovered diss. - dissertation
dist. - distinguished, district distr. - distribution, distributed by
div. - dividend, division, divorced dm / dm. - decameter, decimeter
DNB - Dictionary of National Biography do. - Latin ditto = the same
doc. - document doz. - dozen
dpt. - department dr. - debit, debtor, drachma, dram
d.t. - delirium tremens, double time dup. / dupl. - duplicate
DVD - digital videodisc DVD-ROM - digital videodisc read-only memory
dwt. - pennyweight  
e / e. - erg, errors (Baseball) ea. - each
eccl. / eccles. - ecclesiastical ecol. - ecology
econ. - economic, economics, economy ed. - editor, edited, edited by, edition
eds. - editors
edu. - educational, (domain name extension, e.g. www.harvard.edu)   educ. - education, educational
e.g. -  Latin exempli gratia = for example elec. / elect. - electric, electrical, electrician, electricity
elev. - elevation e-mail - electronic mail
emp. - emperor, empire, empress e.m.u. - electromagnetic unit
enc. - enclosed ency. / encyc. / encycl. - encyclopedia, encyclopaedia
eng. - engineer, engineering, engraved enl. - enlarged (e.g. rev. and enl. ed.)
entom. / entomol. - entomologist, entomology esp. - especially
est. - established, estimate et al. - Latin et alibi = and elsewhere,
Latin et alii, et aliae, et alia = and others
et passim. - and here and there, used to cite pages scattered throughout the source indicated et seq. - Latin et sequens = and the following, Latin et sequentes or seqentia = and those that follow, meaning the pages that follow
etc. -  Latin et cetera = and so forth ex. - examined, example
exch. - exchange, exchequer exec. - executive, executor
ex lib. - Latin ex libris = from the books of f - Italian forte = loud (music)
f. - farad, father, farthing, fathom, feminine, fluid (ounce), folio (size), following, franc, frequency fac. - faculty
fac. / fax - facsimile
facsim. - facsimile  
fed. - federal, federated, federation fem. - female, feminine
ff - Italian fortissimo = very loud (music); ff - folios (several sheets of folio size, or pages following) ff. / fol. - folios, following
fig. - figure fin. - finance
fl. - florin, flourished, fluid (Latin floruit - for use before historical dates are known, e.g. fl. 300 BC)  fn. - footnote
fr. - fragment, franc, from front. - frontispiece
ft = feet, foot; ft. - fort fut. - future
fwd. - foreword, foreword by g / g. / gm - gram
gal / gall. - gallon gaz. - gazette, gazetteer
gen. - gender, genera, general, genus (e.g. gen. ed.) geog. - geographer, geographical, geography
geol. - geologic, geologist, geology geom. - geometric, geometry
gloss. - glossary gov - government (domain name extension, e.g. www.irs.gov)
gov. - governor
govt. - government GPO - Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
gr - grain(s), gram(s) gram. - grammar, grammarian
            hab. corp. - Latin habeas corpus = that you have the body
H. Doc. - House of Representatives Document her. - heraldry
hist. - historian, historical, history HMSO - Her (His) Majesty's Stationery Office, London
hort. - horticultural, horticulture hr - hour(s), HR - House of Representatives
H. Rept. - House of Representatives Report H. Res. - House of Representatives Resolution
ht. - height http - hypertext transfer protocal (e.g. https://www.bydewey.com)
  ib. / ibid. - Latin ibidem = in the same place of the work as cited immediately above
id. - Latin idem = the same i.e. - Latin id est = that is
illus. - illustrator, illustration, illustrated by imp. - imperative, imperial, imports,
Latin imprimatur = let it be printed
in. - inch, inches in loc. cit. - Latin in loco citato = in the place cited
in re - in the matter of inc. - including, income, incorporated
infin. - infinitive  
ins. - inches, insurance inst. - instant, institute, institution
intl. - international introd. - introduction, introduced by
ips - inches per second (e.g. tape recorder speeds: 7 1/2 ips, 15 ips, 30 ips) irreg. - irregular
is. - island, isle ISP - Internet service provider
jour. - journal Jr. - Junior
jud. - judicial k. - kilo, kilogram, thousand
KB - kilobyte kg - kilogram (note: no period after kg)
kilo. - kilogram, kilometer km - kilometer (note: no period after km)
kt. - carat kw - kilowatt (note: no period after kw)
l - liter l, ll - line, lines (to avoid confusion, better to spell out line, lines)
lab. - laboratory lang. - language
lat. - latitude lb - Latin libra = pound
LC - Library of Congress leg. - legal
legis. - legislation, legislative, legislator, legislature lib. - liberal, librarian, library
lieut. / lt. - lieutenant lit. - literally, literary, literature
loc. cit. - l.c. - Latin loco citato = in the place cited; in the same passage, same work, same page, by same publisher and same author as cited previously. lon. / long. - longitude
LP - long-playing phonograph record ltd. - limited
m. - male, married, meridian, Latin
= noon, meter, mile, minute, month
mach. - machine, machinist
mag. - magazine maj. - major
mas. / masc. - masculine math. - mathematician, mathematics
MB - megabyte mdse. - merchandise
mech. - mechanical, mechanics mem. / memo - Latin memento = remember, memorandum
med. - medical, medicine, medieval  
mfg. - manufacturing mfr. - manufacture, manufacturer
mg / mg. / mgm - milligram mgr. - manager
mi - miles, mill (note: no period after mi) misc. - miscellaneous
ml / ml. - milliliter mm - millimeter(s), Latin millia = thousands
mo. - month(s) mod. - moderate, modern
MS / MSS - manuscript, manuscripts mt. / mts. - mount, mountain, mountains
mus. - museum, music, musician n / nn - note, notes
n. - noun narr. - narrator, narrated by
natl. - national nav. - naval, navigation
NB - Latin nota bene = mark well, take notice, note well n.d. - no date of publication
NED - A New English Dictionary (now OED - Oxford English Dictionary) n.n. - no name
neg. - negative no. - number
non seq. - Latin non sequitur = it does not follow nonstand. - nonstandard
n.p. - no place of publication, no publisher n. pag. - no page number, no pagination
ns - new series NS - New Style (New Style calendar: Gregorian calendar was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII on 24 Feb. 1582)
numb. - numbered  
obit. - obituary obj. - object, objective
obs. - obsolete OCLC - Online Computer Library Center
OED - The Oxford English Dictionary (formerly NED - New English Dictionary) op. - opus (work - especially musical composition)
op. cit. - Latin opere citato = in the work cited, but not the same page orch. - orchestra, orchestrated by
org. - organization (domain extension, e.g. en.wikipedia.org) orig. - original, originally 
os - old series, original series OS - Old Style (Old Style calendar: Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, came into force 45 BC)
oz. - ounce (Italian abbrev. of onza) p. / pp. - page, pages
P - Press (e.g. UP - University Press) par. - paragraph, parallel
part. - participle  
passim - here and there pat. /patd. - patent, patented
pct. - percent p.d. - Latin per diem = by the day
PDF - portable document format pen. - peninsular
per se - by itself, of itself perf. - performer, performed by
philol. - philology, philological philos. - philosopher, philosophy
phys. - physical, physician, physicist, physics pl. - plate, plural
poss. - possessive ppd. - postpaid, prepaid
pref. - preface, preface by prep. - preposition
pres. - present prin. - principal, principle
proc. - proceedings prod. - produced by, producer, production
pro tem. - Latin pro tempore = for the time being pron. - pronoun, pronunciation
pronunc. - pronunciation PS - postscript
pseud. - pseudonym - pen name psych. / psychol. - psychological, psychologist, psychology
pt - pint (note: no period after pt) pt. - part, payment, point, port
pub. / publ. - public, publisher, publication, published by Pub. L. - Public Law
pwt - pennyweight (note: no period after pwt)  
q. - quarto, question q.v. - Latin quod vide - which see
qr. - quarter qt - quart (note: no period after qt)
qt. - quiet (slang) qtd. - quoted
ques. - question quot. - quotation
r. - reigned r.b.i. / rbi / RBI - run(s) batted in (Baseball)
rec. - receipt, recipe, record, recorded ref. - referee, reference, reformed. Ref. - Reference (section in Library)
reg. - regent, regiment, region, registered, registrar, regular, regulation rel. - relative, release
rept. - report, reported by res. - resolution
resp. - respectively rev. - review, reviewed by, revision, revised, revised by
riv. - river RLIN - Research Libraries Information Network
rpm - revolutions per minute (unit of frequency used to measure rotational speed of gramophone/phonograph records, which typically rotate at 16, 33⅓, 45, or 78 rpm). rps / r.p.s. - revolutions per second (measurement of the frequency of a rotation, also a unit of angular velocity).
rpt. - reprint, reprinted, reprinted by s. - saint, second, semi-, shilling, silver, sire, solo, son, soprano, south. S / SS - Saint, Saints
S - Senate sc. - scene
S. Doc. - Senate Document sch. - school
sci. - science, scientific, scientist sculp / sculp. - sculptor, sculptural, sculpture
sec - secant, second(s) sec. / secy. - secretary
sec. / sect. - section ser. - series
serg. / sergt. / sgt. - sergeant sess. - session
[sic.] - thus in the source (exactly as quoted) sing. - singular
soc. - society sol. - solicitor
sp. - special, species, specific, specimen, spelling, spirit spec. - special
sq. - square, sequence Sr. - Senior
S. Rept. - Senate Report S. Res. - Senate Resolution
st. - stanza St. /Sts. - Saint, Saints
Stat. - statistic, thermostat, photostat, Statutes at Large, Latin statim = immediately  
sub. - submarine, substitute, suburb subj. - subject, subjective, subjunctive
substand. - substandard sup. - superior, supplement, supply, (Latin supra = above), supreme
supp. - supplement supt. - superintendent
surg. - surgeon, surgery sym. - symbol, symphony
syn. - synonym, synonymous t. - temperature, tempo, (Latin tempore = in the time of), tenor, tense (grammar), territory, time, ton(s), town, transitive, troy (weight)
tbs. / tbsp. - tablespoon tel. - telegram, telegraph, telephone
temp. - temperature, temporary terr. - territory
theol. - theologian, theological, theology topog. - topographical, topography
trans. / tr. - transitive, translated by, translation, translator treas. - treasurer, treasury
trig. / trigon. - trigonometric, trigonometry TS / TSS - typescript, typescripts
tsp. - teaspoon twp. - township
U - University (e.g. UP - University Press) ult. - ultimate
univ. - universal, university UP - University Press
URL - uniform resource locator (e.g. https://www.bydewey.com/ is the URL for A Research Guide for Students by I Lee) USC - United States Code
usu. - usually uv - ultraviolet (note: no period after uv)
v. - verb, verse, versus, Latin vide = see, voltage, von (German name), v. = toward, opposite var. - variant
vb. - verb VCR - video cassette recorder
vers. - version vet. - veteran, veterinary
VHS - video home system (a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders (VCRs)  
vide ante- see the preceding vide infra - see below or the following
vide supra - see above viz. - Latin videlicet = namely
vol. - volcano, volume vox. pop. - Latin vox populi = voice of the people
v.p. - vice president, vice principal v.s. - Latin vide supra = see above
vs. / v. - Latin versus = against vs. / vss. - verse, verses
wpm - words per minute writ. - writer, written by
wt - weight (no period after wt) www - World Wide Web
yd - yard(s) yr - year
zn = zinc  

The above list of abbreviations is by no means complete. For a more exhaustive list of common and specialized abbreviations please see Abbreviation from Wikipedia.

For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words, please see Chapter 7.4 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Edition or see Part 2: Details of MLA Style, 1. The Mechanics of Scholarly Prose, 1.6 Abbreviations in MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition.

Abbreviations of Degrees in MLA Style

Note: When documenting sources using MLA style, the normal punctuations are omitted for degrees when used in parentheses, tables, works cited, and so forth. For example, B.A. is written as BA. Other abbreviations retain the periods if applicable, e.g. acad., bib., misc.

BA - Bachelor of Arts BBA - Bachelor of Business Administration
BS - Bachelor of Science DA - Doctor of Arts
EdD - Doctor of Education JD - Doctor of Law (Latin juris doctor)
LLB - Bachelor of Laws (Latin legum baccalaureus) LLD - Doctor of Laws (Latin legum doctor)
LLM - Master of Laws (Latin legum magister) MA - Master of Arts
MBA - Master of Business Administration MD - Doctor of Medicine (Latin medicinae doctor)
MS - Master of Science PhD - Doctor of Philosophy (Latin philosophiae doctor)

Abbreviations of Works by William Shakespeare

Ado - Much Ado about Nothing Ant. - Antony and Cleopatra
AWW - All's Well That Ends Well AYL - As You Like ItAnt. - Antony and Cleopatra
Cor. - Coriolanus Cym. - Cymbeline
Err. - The Comedy of Errors F1 - First Folio edition (1623)
F2 - Second Folio edition (1632) Ham. - Hamlet
1H4 - Henry IV, Part 1 2H4 - Henry IV, Part 2
H5 - Henry V 1H6 - Henry VI, Part 1
2H6 - Henry VI, Part 2 3H6 - Henry VI, Part 3
H8 - Henry VIII JC - Julius Caesar
Jn. - King John LC - A Lover's Complaint
LLL - Love's Labour's Lost Lr. - King Lear
Luc. - The Rape of Lucrece Mac. - Macbeth
MM - Measure for Measure MND - A Midsummer Night's Dream
MV - The Merchant of Venice Oth. - Othello
Per. - Pericles PhT - The Phoenix and the Turtle
PP - The Passionate Pilgrim Q - Quarto edition
R2 - Richard II R3 - Richard III
Rom. - Romeo and Juliet Shr. - The Taming of the Shrew
Son. - Sonnets TGV - The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Tim. - Timon of Athens Tit. - Titus Andronicus
Tmp. - The Tempest TN - Twelfth Night
TNK - The Two Noble Kinsmen Tro. - Troilus and Cressida
Ven. - Venus and Adonis Wiv. - The Merry Wives of Windsor
WT - The Winter's Tale  

The above abbreviations have been gathered from various lists of Abbreviations of Works by Shakespeare:

Titles and Abbreviations for Shakespeare's plays. Listed in Paul Brewester's Paper.

Standard Abbreviations of Shakespearean Titles, with bias towards MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, 2016 (1.6.4).

The Correct Way to Cite Shakespearean Works by Forest Time, eHow Contributor. Example - parenthetical reference in MLA format: (Mac. 1.3.14-17) refers to Act 1, Scene 3, Lines 14 to 17 of "Macbeth."

Abbreviations, symbols, and conventions and Glossary from Shakespeare's Words, copyright 2020 by David Crystal and Ben Crystal.

Currency Acronyms and Abbreviations

AUD - Australian dollar BRL - Brazilian real
CAD - Canadian dollar CHF - Swiss franc
CKZ - Czech koruna CLP - Chilean peso
CNY - Chinese yuan/Renminbi COP - Colombian peso
DKK - Danish krone EUR - Euro
GBP - (Great Britain) United Kingdom pound HKD - Hong Kong dollar
HUF - Hungarian forint IDR - Indonesian rupiah
ILS - Israel sheqel INR - Indian rupee
JPY - Japanese yen KOR - South Korean won
MXN - Mexican peso MYR - Malaysian ringgit
NGN - Nigerian naira NOK - Norwegian krona
NTD - New Taiwan dollar PEN - Peruvian nuevo sol
PHP - Philippine peso PLN - Polish zloty
RON - Romanian leu RUB - Russian ruble
SEK - Swedish krona SGD - Singapore dollar
THB - Thailand baht TRL - Turkish lira
USD - United States dollar ZAR - South African rand
ZMW - Zambian kwacha  

The above acronyms and abbreviations have been taken from IG Wealth Management Interim Report of 30 Sep 2022 and are by no means complete. They represent a fraction of about 176 currency codes from around the world. See Currency Acronyms and Abbreviations from easyMarkets, alphabetically listed by countries.

Links to Common, Uncommon, Specialized Abbreviations
and Acronyms

Abbreviation from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Types of abbreviations include acronym and initialism (including three-letter acronyms), apocope, clipping, elision, syncope, syllabic abbreviation, and portmanteau.

Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms from Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing.

Abbreviations and Acronyms. Farm Policy Abbreviations and Acronyms from Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics (AEDE), Ohio State University: College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES).

Abbreviations and Acronyms. On the correct usage of abbreviations and acronyms, from Style Guide, University of Colorado at Boulder.

Abbreviations and Official Names of Countries in Europe.
Abbreviations and symbols for the geographical names of the provinces and territories of Canada.

Abbreviations of Chemical Compounds. Example: Type in your keywords to search, e.g. asa = Results for ASA
- acetylsalicylic acid
+ 2-acetyloxy benzoic acid.

Abbreviations of University Degrees from everything2.com. See also:

British Degree Abbreviations & Academic degree from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Style Manual from Samford University on the correct way of writing university degree abbreviations.

Degrees. To use periods or not? Formatting abbreviations of degrees, from Style Guide, University of Colorado at Boulder.

Academic Degrees. Writing degrees correctly. Example: Do not precede a name with a title of an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation for that degree. From Styleguide, Carnegie Melon University.

Abbreviations.com is the world's largest and most comprehensive directory and search engine for acronyms, abbreviations and initialisms on the Internet. Browse by Category: Computing, Internet, Academic & Science, Medical, Business, Governmental, Community, Regional, International, Miscellaneous. Over 420,000 Entries, 134 Categories, 311 Editors + MetaSearch. Search Abbreviations A-Z.

ABC of Bulletin Board Terms for posting messages on Bulletin Boards, from BabyCentre.co.uk. Examples: AKA = Also known as, LOL = Laughing out loud, BTW = By the way, CUL = See you later, Yw/Ty = You're welcome/thank you. Emotions: :) or :-) = Smiling (Happy), :( or :-( = Frowning (Sad), :-o = Shouting, xxooxxoo = Love (or hugs) & kisses. See also Shorthand and Meaning from Genealogy.com. (Scroll way down the page to view Shorthand). Examples: = I'm grinning, IMHO = in my humble opinion, FYI = for your information, FWIW = for what it's worth, ROTFL = rolling on the floor laughing, WTG = way to go, Emotions: ;-) or ;) = winking, :-D or :D = laughing.

The Most Common Acronyms Used Online. Learn what INB4, BAE, BTFO, and tons more acronyms stand for - by Wendy Boswell, Life Wire. Updated August 20, 2017. Examples: AFAIK = As Far As I Know, B4N = Bye for Now, BBL = Be Back Later, BFF = Best Friends Forever, BRB = Be Right Back, IDK = I Don't Know, IMO = In My Opinion, OMG = Oh My God, Oh My Goodness, Oh My Gosh, TIL = Today I Learned ...

About.com: U.S. Government Acronyms and Abbreviations. A handy list of acronyms and abbreviations commonly used in United States Government. Where possible, links to related agencies, offices or related information are provided.

Acronym Finder. Look up acronyms, abbreviations and their meanings.

Acronym Finder
Acronym or abbreviation to find:

Acronym Search. Your source for acronyms and abbreviations.

Acronyms & Abbreviations. Links compiled by Cheryl Nyberg, University of Washington School of Law, Marian Gould Gallagher Law Library.

Acronyms and Abbreviations Dictionary from businessballs.com.

Acronyms and Abbreviations Used at MIT from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

leaf Acronyms and Abbreviations. List of acronyms and abbreviations used by Industry Canada sectors, branches, products, programs and services.

Air Traffic Management Glossary of Terms - Acronym - Meaning from Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC), U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Appendix A - International Abbreviations from CIA - The World Factbook.

BABEL: A Glossary of Computer Oriented Abbreviations and Acronyms by Irving & Richard Kind.

Bibliographical Abbreviations (Music), General Abbreviations (Music) and Library Sigla - Abbreviations for libraries holding music-related manuscripts (A-Y by countries), from Oxford Music Online.

Bibliographical Abbreviations (Egypt/ANE). Compiled for the Egyptologists' Electronic Forum (EEF), version 38 (March 2011).

Bird Species Code Abbreviations. Table shows bird abbreviations for all non-extinct bird species that have been recorded in Massachusetts. See also:

Six-letter Code for ABA Bird Checklist Species. List of Codes and Rules for Constructing Abbreviations of Bird Species Names: A Six-letter Code System by Bruce M. Bowman.

Standardized 4- and 6-Letter Bird Species Codes from the Institute for Bird Populations.

Table of Genus/Species - Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) Database from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Genus / Species and Common Names for Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals.

Canadian Government Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms from Wilfrid Laurier University Library, Waterloo, ON.

The Canonical Astronomy Abbrev/Acro List. Astronomy abbreviations and acronyms.

Common Abbreviations from Fact Monster for kids.

Common Abbreviations and Acronynms from AllEarsNet.com - Deb's Unofficial Walt Disney World Information Guide.

Common Abbreviations and Acronyms in Electronics.
Electronic Engineering Abbreviations, Acronyms.
Electronic Component Name Abbreviations.
Commonly Used Acronyms from Electronix Express.
Electronics acronyms and abbreviations. 855 acronyms and abbreviations related to Electronics.
Semiconductor Symbols and Abbreviations.
Electrical Engineering acronyms and abbreviations. 346 acronyms and abbreviations related to Electrical Engineering.
Electrical Abbreviations by architect Michael Noll of Archtoolbox, Architect's Technical Reference.
What abbreviations are used in electrical engineering? A glossary of abbreviations used in electrical engineering.
List of Electrical Abbreviations from Architect's Technical References.
Electrical Basic Abbreviations and Full Forms from Scribd.

Common Abbreviations in Writing.

Common Abbreviations Used in International Narcotics from Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, 2012 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), U.S. Department of State.

Common Computer, IT, and Technology Abbreviations. Common Computer Abbreviations by Kate Miller-Wilson, B.A. English, Your Dictionary. Listed are some of the numerous important computer abbreviations in use today, including storage abbreviations. Operating Systems and Data Storage Abbreviations. Internet, Networking, and Connectivity Abbreviations. Common Cloud Computing Abbreviations. Common (Artificial Intelligence) AI Abbreviations. Common Email and Chat Abbreviations. Email Abbreviations. Emoticons.

Common Medical Abbreviations from GlobalRPh Inc.

Common Proofreading Symbols and Abbreviations from Mrs. Moran's Language Arts Workshops, Nova Scotia, Canada.

List of proofreader's marks from Wikipedia. Abbreviations, their meanings and uses. Symbols, symbol names, images, meanings and examples of use.

Proofreading and Editing Symbols from University of Western Ontario (UWO). Proofreading symbols are used to identify mistakes and to state the needed correction. Listed are the most common proofreading symbols, along with explanation and examples of each.

Dictionary of Abbreviations and Acronyms in Geographic Information Systems, Cartography, and Remote Sensing from University of California, Berkeley, by Philip Hoehn and Mary Lynette Larsgaard. Designed by John Creaser. This dictionary decodes abbreviations and acronyms found in various publications including maps and websites. Browse A-Z, Numbers, Other Lists.

Dr. Margaret Oakley Dayhoff: The origin of the single-letter code for the amino acids. See also Amino Acids from Free University, Berlin.

Drug and Medical Abbreviations from TakeRx.com: The Meaning of Abbreviations.

Element Symbols List: Abbreviations for the Chemical Elements by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Chemistry Expert, About.com.

Glossary of military abbreviations from Wikipedia.
Abbreviations: Military. Browse 27,934 acronyms and abbreviations related to Military.
Common Military Acronyms from Military One Source.
Glossary of Defense Acquisition Acronyms and Terms. Published by the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) Press, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. 13th Edition, November 2009, Author: Gary Hagan.
Glossary of German Military Terms and Abbreviations
Glossary of Military Acronyms from Military.com
Militaria Abbreviations and References: Mail Order Catalogue Meanings
Military Abbreviations, Acronyms and Terms
Military Acronyms from Your Dictionary.
Military Glossary of Acronyms: The who's who of what's that.
Navajo Code Talkers' Dictionary
United States Military Rank Abbreviation: US Air Force, Coast Guard, Navy, Marines and Army. Must scroll down about a quarter of the way to view abbreviations. Includes USAF Officers Rank Insignia and Structure.

How HTML acronyms and abbreviations can help online journalism by Adrian Holovaty. "... every acronym and abbreviation in a news story should be defined."

HyperWar - World War II on the WorldWideWeb - Abbreviations, Acronyms, Codewords, Terms.

Inter Active Terminology for Europe (IATE). European Commissions multilingual term bank. The automatic dictionary was launched in 1964. Entries are classified into 48 subject fields (ranging from medicine to public administration). Languages include Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish. A typical entry contains the term itself and its synonyms, together with definitions, explanatory notes, references, etc. At present the term bank contains about 5,500,000 entries (terms and abbreviations), subdivided into more than 800 collections.

Internet Acronym Server. Search for acronyms and for words used in acronyms. What's an Acronym? History of Acronyms. Historical and Current Use of Acronyms.

ISO 3166-1 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions - Part 1: Country codes. It defines three sets of country codes: 1. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 - two-letter country codes. 2. ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 - three-letter country codes. 3. ISO 3166-1 numeric - three-digit country codes. ~ From Wikipedia.

List of acronyms and initialisms: 0-9, A-Z from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

List of computing and IT abbreviations from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

List of Government Acronyms compiled by Deborah Hollis and Norberto Lozoya-Escobar, edited by Jennie Gerke, from University of Colorado at Boulder (UCB) Libraries.
DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms as of August 2017 from DoD = Department of Defense (US government). "The DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (DOD Dictionary) sets forth standard US military and associated terminology to encompass the joint activity of the Armed Forces of the United States. These military and associated terms, together with their definitions, constitute approved Department of Defense (DOD) terminology for general use by all DOD components."
Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. 8 November 2010 (As Amended Through 15 February 2016).
Military Terms and Acronyms. Space: Above And Beyond (SAAB). Fanfic Writers Database.
Glossary of Acronyms and Terms. The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 4, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), pp. 685-687.

List of U.S. Army acronyms and expressions from Wikipedia.

List of Two-Letter Combinations from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also Four-Letter Abbreviations (FLAB). "A FLAB is an abbreviation using four letters. It is an abbreviation of Four Letter ABbreviation."

List of United States Marine Corps acronyms and expressions from Wikipedia.

Common Medical Abbreviations List (Acronyms and Definitions) by Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR, Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, MedicineNet. See also Common Medical Abbreviations from GlobalRPH.com.

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Military Abbreviations and Acronyms of the US Armed Forces.

Medical Abbreviations Glossary in PDF from JD.MD.

Military Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations.

Military Terms and Definitions. Comprehensive list of U.S. military terms and definitions. Military Acronyms and Abbreviations - Acronym Finder. Army Acronyms and Abbreviations - Acronym List.

MilitaryWords.com. Military Words - site contains over 5,700 US Department of Defense terms and over 100,000 military and government acronyms and abbreviations.

Music Abbreviations from Abbreviations.com. See also:

Abbreviations - Oxford Music Online.

Alphabetical List of American (A) and British (B) Musical Terms.

Basic glossary of musical forms from Yale University Library - Irving S. Gilmore Music Library. Printer friendly version.

Classical Music in the 21st Century - Common Music Terms.

Glossary of musical terminology from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Musical Terminology / Glossary / Definitions - Dictionary of Musical Terms A-Z.

OnMusic Dictionary. Type in a music abbreviation, e.g. "ff" in Search box. Result: Abbreviation for fortissimo.

Organizational Acronyms - mainly for United States.

Pharmaceutical Manufacturer Abbreviations. Listed alphabetically by company name, from Government of Manitoba.

Physics Abbreviations from Abbreviations.com. Symbols and Abbreviations (Physics). List of symbols and abbreviations. Lecture Physics of materials by H. S. Leipner 2001-09, last revision 2008-09. List of Common Physics Abbreviations from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Pitman Shorthand, part 1 of 3 (Revised) by Dracopol. YouTube video, 9:58 min.
Pitman Shorthand, part 2 of 3 (Revised) by Dracopol. YouTube video, 7:49 min.
Pitman Shorthand, part 3 of 3 (Revised) by Dracopol. YouTube video, 7:18 min.

Pitman ShortHand Writing lessons. Introduction by Suraendra ben. YouTube video, 2:54 min. Days 1-30 Lessons.
Day 1 . Consonants Pitman ShortHand Writing lessons by Suraendra ben. YouTube video, 13:46 min.
Day 30. Grammalogues :: Doubling ( Good bye ):: Pitman ShortHand Writing Lessons by Suraendra Ben. YouTube video, 4:32 min.

Proofreaders' Marks at a Glance from BioMedical Editor. "Proofreaders' Marks are symbols and notations for correcting typeset pages. The proofreader places these marks in the margins and in corresponding lines of text. A slash separates marginal marks that appear on the same line." See examples: Marginal Mark, Textual Mark, Instruction.

Rx Riddles Solved! from Vallalar Hospital, 2 Feb. 2014.

Sig Codes from Pharmacy Technician. A few examples:

• 1°, 2° = 1 hour, 2 hours
• 1H, 2H, etc. = every hour, every 2 hours, etc.
• a = before
• ac = before meals ("before a meal" if once daily dosing)
• ad = right ear
• aq = water
• as = left ear
• au = both ears
• bid = twice daily
• c = with
• C = 100
• cc = with food
• fid = five times daily
• hs = at bedtime
• H2O = water
• IV = intravenously (for injectables)
• lot = lotion
• noct = night
• npo, NPO = nothing by mouth
• od = right eye (or once daily)
• os = left eye
• ou = both eyes
• p = after
• pc = after meals ("after a meal" if once daily dosing)
• pc breakfast = after breakfast
• po, per os = by mouth
• prn = as needed
• q = every
• q 4 h = every 4 hours
• q 7 PM= every day at 7 PM
• qam = every morning
• qd = every day or once daily
• qd/es = twice daily on an empty stomach
• qhs = at bedtime
• qid = four times daily
• qn = every night
• qod = every other day
• qpm = every evening / insulin
• tid = three times daily
• ud, utd = as directed
• ung = ointment
• wc = with meals ("with a meal" if once daily dosing)

Sig = signa (Latin, meaning: to write), n (signature): the portion of a prescription that contains a statement of the directions for use. From Mosby's Dental Dictionary, 2nd edition. © 2008 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers v8.0.236 by MobiSystems, Inc. 17 Aug. 2017. 40,000 entries and definitions from all areas of medicine, 350 illustrations, Audio pronunciations, Helpful hints.

State Abbreviations and State Postal Codes from Fact Monster.

Telecommunications and Virtual Phone System Glossary of Terms from Freedom800. Commonly used terms include: ACD. ANI, ANSI, FDDI, ISDN, IVR, PBX, PDF, POTS, PSTN, SMS, SMS800, SOHO, TIF, VoIP.

U.S. Government Acronyms and Abbreviations from About.com. See also GovSpeak: A Guide to U.S. Government Acronyms & Abbreviations: Home by Kelly L. Smith. The most current, extensive and fully-linked listing of U.S. government agency, office, program and publication acronyms.

United States Postal Service - Official USPS Abbreviations.

Street Suffixes - abbreviations for Annex, Avenue, Boulevard ...

Secondary Unit Designators - abbreviations for Apartment, Basement, Floor ...

Look Up a Zip Code. ZIP is an acronym that stands for "Zone Improvement Plan".

See Addressing for more info on shipping addresses.
Glossary of Postal Terms and Abbreviations in the DMM. DMM = Domestic Mail Manual. 800 Quick Service Guide from United Stsates Postal Service (USPS).

Appendix D - USPS State Abbreviations and FIPS Codes from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Usenet Abbreviations and Acronyms by Dr J R Stockton, Surrey, UK.

Vietnam War Glossary: A-L. Vietnam War Glossary: M-Z from Alpha History. This Vietnam War glossary contains definitions of words, terms and concepts pertaining to the struggle for Vietnam between the 19th century and 1975. Words from M to Z. This glossary has been written and compiled by Alpha History authors.

Glossary of some of the words used during the Vietnam War from 1st Cav Medic (Airmobile). "This site is dedicated to the Army Medics / Navy Corpsmen named on the Vietnam Memorial Wall and to the men with whom I served in the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, First Cavalry Division (Airmobile)." Copyright 1998 - 2007 by John D. Dennison.

What Do the Prescription Abbreviations Mean? By Carol Eustice, About.com Guide. "Centuries ago, all prescriptions were written in Latin ... Origins of Using 'Rx' for 'Prescription' - Its origins are given variously as an abbreviation of the Latin word 'recipe,' meaning 'take' ..."

WordAcronyms.com. 1/2 million acronyms, abbreviations and initialisms. More being added daily. You can Add an Acronym, view Random Acronyms, search for Acronyms, Abbreviations, Zip Codes in a variety of categories.